albacar: walled area / refuge: which comes from the Arabic root baqqâr, meaning livestock or herder. Usually provided with a cistern. Often with low walls and habitations.

alcazaba (from Arabic al-qasbah): Walled fortification in a city. e.g. Denia Castle.

aljibe (aljub from Arabic al-ğubb): water cistern.

alquería: (from Arabic, qarya (plural qura) Farmstead, hamlet or small village and its associated farmlands. There were no fixed boundaries for alqueria lands. Instead they were collectively owned by the tribal group after which they were often named. As a rule of thumb there were 7-10 alquierías per hisn.

Atalaya: (from Arabic ṭalā'i‘) Rectangular watchtower.

celoquia (from Arabic saluqiya): The fortification on the top of an Islamic castle. A form of redoubt in which the administrator or caid (qāyd / qā‘id) resided.

hisn (plural husûn): Stronghold, an organisational and defensive centre of an area - Husûn were often castles.

hisn/qarya complex: The social unit formed by the hisn (castle) and its associated farmsteads (alquerias).

Llibre del Repartiment: 13th century feudal Christian land distribution document. A record book in which the King's scribes recorded promises of donations of properties at the conclusion of the Valencian conquest. The scribes later indicated the names of the persons who actually took possession.

Moriscos: Descendants of the Spanish Muslim population that converted to Christianity under threat of exile or death. In the Valencian Kingdom the Muslims were obliged to be baptised as Christians after the revolts of 1525.

Opus vitatum: type of wall construction using small blocks arranged in horizontal rows, sometimes alternating with brick. Used by the Romans and in the middle ages.

Opus incertum: type of wall construction based on small irregular stones, embedded and arranged in horizontal lines in a wall made of concrete. Used by the Romans and in the middle ages.

Opus piscatum (spicatum): type of wall construction consisting of bricks or stones placed in the form of the spine of a fish. Used by the Romans and in the middle ages.

Pact del Poet: Also known as the "Treaty of the well" or "Al Azraq treaty of 1245". A treaty between the Christian King James I of Aragon (Jaume I) and the Muslim commander Mohammad Abu Abdallah
Ben Hudzail al Sahuir popularly known as Al-Azraq in 1245. Unique in that it is the only treaty to survive with its bilingual (Spanish and Arabic) texts fully intact.

rahal / rafal / raal : Translates variously as a shelter or shed, but also refers to private estates which were typically the property of important personages. They had personal names, or that of a functionary and were both smaller than the alqueria farmsteads, and geographically marginal.

Tapia / Tapial: A type of "rammed earth" technique for building walls using natural raw materials such as earth, chalk, lime or gravel. Involves compressing a damp mixture into an externally supported frame or mould, usually made of wood. Simple and fast to construct, strong, and durable.

Torre de Homenage: A feudal Castle Keep

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